What is Lithium-ion battery

Quiz – How Much Do You Really Know About Lithium-ion Battery?

I assume you know/heard about the lithium-ion battery. Usually located in PE [Portable Electronics], PDA’s [Portable Digital Assistant], smartphones, fitness trackers, headphones, smartwatches, etc.

But, do you know how it operates or the battery care you must consider.

Let’s understand what LIB is all about?

So, What is a Lithium-ion Battery??

Rechargeable lithium-ion Battery.

As you all know, lithium-ion battery [LIB] or in other terms Li-ion battery is a rechargeable battery/storage battery. So when you charge or discharge, the lithium ions in the battery jump from the negative electrode [anode] to the positive electrode [cathode]

Electrode – An electrical conductor to connect with a non-metallic part of a circuit.

Generally, a lithium-ion battery is lighter than the other types of rechargeable batteries.


Low Maintenance

  • Maintenance is not required to assure the performance. Periodic discharge is not required because of no memory.

High Energy Density [HED]

  • HED is one of the integral advantages of LIB technology. The requirement of high energy density comes in handy when the E-devices say instance – smartphone, headsets, wearables, etc needs to run for a longer period of time between charges and also consumes more power.
  • This is where the role of HED plays in.

Self-Discharge Rate

  • Lithium-ion batteries self-discharge rate is lower than the other rechargeable battery. The rate is generally around 5% in the first 4 hours after the charge and hence declines to about 1 or 2% p.m [month]

Priming ??

  • There are some of the rechargeable batteries out there that require to be primed when they receive their ‘first’ charge. But, is there any requirement for LIB batteries to take this route?? – The answer isNO.
  • Just 1 regular charge is all that it needs.
♦ So, What's The Term, Priming Means?

A conditioning process that executes to improve the performance during the usage and also after extensive storage.



  • 40% expensive to manufacture than Nickel-cadmium.


  • Lithium-ion battery transportation is insufficient. The limitation that occurs in airlines is the limited number of LIB’s you can carry. However, this means that now the transportation is limited to ships.

Protection Circuit

  • It needs to maintain voltage & current within safe limits.

Age Circuit

  • Whether it is in use or not, storage in a cool environment at 40% charge can diminish the aging effect.

Lithium-ion Battery-Life

Battery Life

Usually, the estimated battery-life of lithium-ion battery is around 2-3 years and charge cycles are about 400 to 500.

So,1 charge cycle means the use from full charged [100%] till full discharged [0%] and starting again to recharge fully

Moving On, Important Things To Consider When Charging LIB – 

Charging LIB

  • Do read the user manual provided with the product. Properly read the charging instructions carefully and do the same.
♦ What Are The Tips To Be Followed When Charging LIB?

Few tips to be followed to enhance your battery-life

  • Avoid completely discharging a battery
  • It will be good if you keep batteries at room temperature i.e around 20-25 degrees Celsius.
  • Don’t even try to charge and leave your smart device in your car or in a place – above the room temperature.
  • ‘Heat’ is the critical factor that leads to reduce battery life.

Tips For Disposal & Recycling Process – 

Battery Disposal

  • Because of advanced technology and rise of smart devices, now everybody has a laptop, smartphone, wearable’s, headphones, etc which contains the volatile Lithium-ion battery.
  • However, when the device is in no use or old, we need to find how to properly dispose of the old useless device.
  • Disposing of the device is a very crucial step to be taken to ensure safety or otherwise can lead to dangerous truck fires.
  • Common mistake found for improper disposal of LIB’s is a misunderstanding and mixed messaging.
  • You should keep a note that Lithium-ion batteries cannot be disposed of in your bin because the bin generally is wetter and can assist to feed the sparks from these batteries and start a fire.

Recycling Process

  • First, the process starts by removing the combustible materials from the battery i.e – plastics and insulation with the assist of gas-fired thermal oxidizer [decomposes dangerous gases at high temperatures and releases into the atmosphere] after this process what leaves is the clean naked cells along with the metal components.
  • Now, the naked cells are cut in small pieces and heated until the metal becomes liquid. Non-metallic materials are burned leaving off a black slag on top.
  • Some recyclers apply a liquid solution – freeze lithium-based batteries with liquid nitrogen to diminish the issue of a reactive event during the crushing process takes place.

It consumes around 8 – 10 times more energy to recover metals from recycled batteries than from mining” – Report Claims.

How Does A Lithium-Ion Battery Work?

A rechargeable LIB consists of 3 components –

Positive Electrode [PE]

  • PE i.e connected to the battery’s positive or ‘+’ sign terminal. A chemical compound which is normally 1 of these 3 materials – lithium-cobalt oxide, lithium iron phosphate or lithium manganese oxide

Negative Electrode [NE]

  • NE i.e connected to the battery’s negative or ‘-‘ sign terminal. The build is of carbon. The most general anode is graphite.


  • a lithium salt in an organic solvent which lies between PE and NE

♦ For instance, inside the laptop or computer battery packet for each of the lithium-ion cell holds these 5 items –

  • Mains Connector
  • Temperature Sensor
  • Charge-state monitor
  • Voltage Regulator Circuit
  • Voltage Tap

♦ Because of these 5 essential factors

  • It can be able to control the charge-state and current flow [Charge-state monitor]
  • Tracks the newest full-charge capacity
  • Monitors the temperature [Temperature Sensor]

This benefits in decreasing the danger of short circuit.

How The Battery Charges/Discharges? Tell Me, How Does This Work?


When charging/discharging, the lithium-ions in the lib moves from one direction to another.

When battery charges [Absorping Power {AP}], ions move one direction and when battery discharges [Supplying Power {SP}], ions move the opposite direction.

  • During the charging process, ions move from PE to NE by the Electrolyte.
  • During the discharging process, ions move back from NE to PE by the Electrolyte.

So, when do we get to know the battery is full-charged/full-discharged and you can use now?

  • When there are no further ions to move – the battery is full-charged and when all the ions moved back from NE to PE, the battery requires charging [full-discharged]

What Makes A Lithium-Ion Battery Explode?

LIB is really best at saving energy. When all that energy is released in one shot, the battery explodes.

The most common cause for the battery explosion is ‘Short Circuit’

Smart Tech Portal [STP] grants you with a platform to research/analyze by yourself i.e Valuable and genuine products - Audio [Headphones/ Earphones] & Wearable's [Fitness Trackers/Smartwatches] etc... We believe that this channel will help you to choose the right and genuine product according to your needs.
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